Jammu and Kashmir is a hilly State there are three Principal Agro climatic Zones-Viz Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. The region enjoys different climatic conditions excluding the cold and high level region of Leh and Kargil. Ladakh region does not sustained any significant vegetative covered, the area of Forest in the State is around 2182 Sq k. meters, which works out to be 50% Geographic area. After taking out of the area of Ladakh region.
Magnitude of soil erosion is very high in different parts of Kargil District. Soil erosion problem is a great threat in and around Kargil Distt. As per the magnitude of erosion in District, Kargil intensive Soil Conservation and other measures are warranted to provide maximum passable cover of the land surface. Intensive land management and ant erosion measures shall have be taken in different areas in Kargil.
There is minimum soil erosion and off besides checking further devastation i.e land sliding and mass movement of soil.
Keeping in view of magnitude of soil erosion in Distt. Kargil. There are so many factors which have created soil erosion process i.e climate, topography- soil texture run off vegetative cover Agriculture, Horticulture, practices and social economic of the people. Accordingly in the 9th five year plan 1997-02 below mentioned schemes has been taken in different problematic areas of Kargil District. The soil erosion hazards are very high and the works has been taken up as per the demands of locals.
Land slide control
Erosion control / protection works
Integrated migrated micro watershed development.
Land Slide Control
Under this scheme an area of 59, hacts has been treated at village Barsoo, Styankun in block Sankoo and Ubrak in block Padum Zanskar. There was a great threat to life and property of the inhabitants of the said villages because of melting of snow of the upper reaches during summer conglomaletic formation was brought down in plans. Due to spreading of boulders in lower areas a lot of Agricultural land was made un-cultivated. During the period ported as above 46,Nos of crate wire structures where laid and 50,Cum of DRSM (Checkdams) where constructed . More ever a part of Soil Conservation measures, snow slide structures were constructed at the top of the gully heads which has given safety to the life and property of the locals and further mass movement of the soil has been controlled.
Erosion control/protection works
In block Sankoo village shishpura and in block Kargil village Garkon has been covered under this Scheme. An area of 65 Hec. Has been treated so for under erosion control and protection works scheme. 192 Nos of crate wire structures 1184, Cum of DRSM, check dams and snow slide structures has been constructed for controlling of soil erosion.
Integrated Micro Water shed Development
Soil Conservation Division Kargil has taken p three areas of Kargil Division Kargil has taken up three areas of Kargil Distt. Under this scheme. An area of 82,Hact. Has been treated in village Thasgam (Drass) village Khowsthang (Taisuru) and village Lastaq (Sankoo). These areas has been properly fenced and pasture instead of this, other Soil Conservation measures has also been done by treating eroded gullies and nallas which are existing in the watershed areas.
More over Deptt. of Soil Conservation has done codification of Suru and Drass rivers, which has helped in formulation of micro watershed planning. Micro watershed development is new concept which has quite instrumental in achieving the optimum protection from land on sustained basis with out impairing or deserting the resource base. In future Micro Watershed planning will be a developmental approach consisting of management of lands, vegetation and water resources within the watershed area through ecological soil and water Conservation practices including Afforest ration silvi pasture/development and other activities. This will also reduces the surface run off and slit load from the catchments areas.
Activities for the year 2003-04 and 2004-05
Soil Conservation Department, has in the recent past taken up the activities of Soil Conservation & water conservation in the desert of Kargil district. Its extremely rugged terrain, undulating topography, infertile soils, without vegetative clothing coupled with severe cold climatic conditions had set in an alarming call for the department of Soil Conservation to take up the areas for soil and water conservation on integrated basis. Being situated on the eastern extremity of Himalayas, the district has an annual rain fall of 3� (75mm). The temperature varying from 20 C in a good summer days to 40 C in water around the Kargil district is very common.
The department of Soil Conservation has so far taken up only a few areas for integrated micro watershed development programme which has yielded fruitful results in general, but unfortunately the works programme for 2003-04 and 2004-05 has been fragmented by the Councilors of various constituencies of LAHDC of entire Kargil District which came into being on July 2003 with result the department is unable to emphasize fully on priority areas and their integrated development in respect of Soil and water conservation.
In view of importance of soil and water conservation activities for stabilization of these natural resources and maintenance of ecological balance, it is very essential in implement the future programme on micro watershed basis to make it more effective and to achieve the tangible results on the ground in respect of the following silvicultural objectives of the schemes.
Conservation of basic natural resources of soil and water.
To reverse the process of degradation of natural environment.
Retention and stabilization of eroded soil masses within the watershed.
Effective soil and moisture conservation by adopting minor engineering structures like, gully plugging check dams/check walls, nallah revetments in association with vegetative measures as second line of defense.
To save the people and property from being damaged by the snow slides.
To elevate the people from poverty by generating the opportunities of employment for them.
To change the land use for the sustainable productivity.
To increase people�s participation and to make them aware about importance of ecology and environment.
The soil conservation measures carried out in different areas in different blocks of District Kargil during the financial year 2003-04 and 2004-05 till date reclamation of gullies/torrents with construction of DRSM check dams/Check Walls, Crate wire structures and construction of snow slide protection bunds in upper reaches, besides aforestation and fodder development on community lands have shown discernable results in general and the works so executed have been appreciated by the local people as well as by district authorities.
During the year 2003-04 an amount of Rs. 45.40 lacs has been spend for implementation of various soil conservation schemes. The physical targets achieved have been produced to tabulated form annexed. As regards the current years programme 2004-05 an amount of Rs. 22.70 lacs stands spend for the different scheme as under :-
1. Erosion Control & Protection Works :
i) Erosion control by DRSM check dams/Check walls.
ii) Nallah Training by crates.
iii) Gully Training by DRSM.
2. Snow Slide Production Works:
i) Construction of protection bunds across slopes
ii) Slip control measures by DRSM.
3. Aforestation/Fencing: Plantation of community lands/farm forestry:
i) Fencing works
iii) Minor irrigation channels
iv) Fodder Development
4. Construction of water harvesting ponds
Source: Soil Conservation Officer, Kargil